Is there room for CS for All

A fear revolving around CS For All concerns where will the money come from and how will we fit in the new classes.

One suggested solution is to integrate CS into other subjects. I thought I'd write today about why I don't think the fear is valid and while integrating CS into other classes can have value, it probably isn't a long term solution for CS education.

Let's start with the integration solution. The idea is to bring CS into an existing class. Bootstrap, a program I've written about before and one of the programs I like does this, primarily in Algebra. The idea is that this supports the student's learning Algebra while exposing them to CS. It's a nice program but a math teacher using Bootstrap shouldn't be confused with a computer science teacher. They're bringing some CS to their student and engaging the students in a different way mathematically and that's all great but in general you can't take two classes worth of material and concepts and fit them into one class and the number of teachers who are truly knowledgable in any two academic subject areas both in content and pedagogical content knowledge is few. I'm guessing that one of the reasons that Bootstrap works in Algebra is the alignment of the toolset and Algebra and how you can teach it. The other is that Algebra is frequently given more time for fewer topics. In some struggling schools, students might have two years of algebra or a double period so there's time to add in some CS.

I'm all for cross curricular work. You can look at applications of science in math classes, do mathy work in a CS class, run stats and data analysis in math and CS classes on materials from History classes and all of this is great. You can even create great combined curricula where you do indeed teach multiple subjects in an integrated way but to think that you can take what is typically taught in two different classes and you can combine both so that they're taught in one class with one teacher sounds fishy to me.

So, at the end of the day, if you go the integration approach you're either going to have to dedicate a similar set of resources both in time and personel to having independent courses. The alternative is that CS will be the second class subject.

So, let's look at actually bringing in CS For All as a separate course.

Here are the New York State Graduation Requirements 1:

Subject   Number of semesters
English   8
Soc Studies   8
Science   6
Math   6
LOTE   2
Arts   2
Phys Ed   4
Health   1
Electives   7
Total   44

It can be difficult to fit Phys Ed in since it has to be offered every semester so let's double the Phys Ed requirement to 8 semesters. What is actually normally done is to have 7.5 periods of science a week and 2.5 periods of Gym.

This means that the basic student program uses 48 class slots and includes 7 elective slots.

In terms of exit exams, students have to pass the following Regents:

  • English
  • Any single math (Algebra, Geometery, Alg 2 / Trig)
  • Any single Social Studies (US History or Global History
  • Any single Science (Living Env (bio), Chem, Phys, Earth Science)
  • Any additional Regents exam

The requirement of passing a single Math regents is what leads to the extra time allocated to Algebra that I mentioned when discussing integrating CS into Algebra above.

To get an Advanced Regents diploma you have to pass additional exams - both history, all three math, three science and maybe more.

Using a Typical 7 period plus lunch day, we have room for 56 single semeter classes in a high school career. This means that assuming students aren't failing too many classes, even with the extra Phys Ed allocation I mentioned above we can easily fit computer science into our day. In fact, we can technically fit in four full years assuming a student doesn't have to repeat any class.

So in New York state we certainly have the time but what about the budget? That's not an issue either. The state also requires that students recieve 5.5 hours of instruction a day exclusive of lunch. At 47 minute periods, that translates to students being assigned 7 instructional classes a day which means we can't just give the kids the required 44. We have to fill all 56 available class slots over those four years.

Of course it's not really that simple. Students fail classes and have to repeat them and some classes might be assigned more time than others but it looks to me like we should be able to fit computer science in without any big budgetary or scheduling changes. The challenge will be finding the teacher and working the internal politics and policies since as computer science comes in it will mean removing some electives even if those electives are additional years of science, math, or English.

Programs like TEALS and Bootstrap are important transitional programs and even when we do have qualified CS teachers they will play an important role - TEALS in providing industry support and resources and Bootstrap by integrating curricular areas and over time as preservice programs start to appear the rest will work itself out.


The state lists by credits which are a year, I doubled the numbers to map to semesters

Unfunded Mandates and CS For All

This morning, Mark Guzdial wrote about unfunded mandates and CS for All. Unfunded mandates frequently wreak havoc on schools in a number of ways but in the long run, I don't think it should have a severe effect on CS for All. Rather, it could have a big impact on the number of CS courses we offer beyond that.

Mark relay's a story from the Cambridge Rindge and Latin School where at the time many students wanted more CS classes but the school wasn't planning on hiring a new CS teacher. The money quote is:

Over 50 percent of students signing up for Level 2 [computer science] courses next year identify as African Americans,

No, I'm not talking about the diversity issue raised by the quote, I'm talking about Level 2 [computer science]. This implies that the students already had Level 1 computer science. Level 1 would cover CS For All so now we're talking about CS electives vs other electives. This is something I had to deal with for most of my career even after we got a CS requirement at Stuy. It was always a battle to hire enough CS teachers to meet demand. The hard part was politics - there were always older more entrenched subject areas who would rather force kids into their electives rather than allow them to take my CS electives. This is a whole other kettle of fish than CS for All. It's an issue for some schools now and will become a BIG issue in five to fifteen years when a single CS required course is more the norm. The issue raised here is a new CS elective vs entrenched teachers and classes which shuld lead to a discussion of the relative value of CS electives vs other electives. That said, the reality is that it usually comes down to school and local power and politics. Also to be considered is the potential ebb and flow of interest - there might be demand for 5 more CS classes and 5 less something else this year but there might not be next year and then we're in real trouble staffing wise.

Schools, public high schools in particular are zero sum endeavors. You have a fixed number of periods a day, specific class requirements, and certain mandates as to a the minimum and maximum number of classes a student can take. In New York City, I believe students are required to have a "full" schedule which basically means they can't come in for English, Math, and History and then go home.

With CS for All, you're basically allocating reallocating some amount of time to computer science. It might be hard to find a qualified teacher. particularly in a small school where the population won't support a full time CS teacher and it might ruffle the feathers of the teachers that will be losing the time but it shouldn't make much of a dent or really any dent on the budget.

Mark also raises the possibility of embedding CS into other subject classes. Bootstrap is a program that I'm rather fond of that does just this in Algebra classes (although more recently they're working to branch out into other subject areas). Even though I'm a big Bootstrap fan I don't think that's the answer to CS for All or CS in the high schools in general. I think that one of the reasons why Bootstrap works so well is the alignment between the CS tool they use and the way Algebra is or can be taught. Another reason is the fact that while Algebra is the lowest level of the traditional high school classes, it's frequently the one for which the most time is allocated. Students in low performing schools might take Algebra over two years or have a double period. This won't be the case for other subject areas. What this means is that there's more likely extra time to embed another subject, cs, into the Algebra class. Long term, embedding CS into another subject area requires:

  • a teacher that really knows both subjects
  • enough time so you can add all the cool CS content while still preparing the students for both the next level of whatever subject you're embedded in as well as for whatever standardized assessments come at the end of the year.

As I said, I'm a Bootstrap fan but I don't think that's the answer for CS in K12.

Back to the original topic there are certainly issues with implementing CS for All but I don't think school funding is the biggest hurdle. For me there are other big challenges. One is having a supply of qualified teachers. In the long run as states outline CS requirements and pre-service programs crop up this will work itself out. Until then, yes, we will have an issue and yes it will take some funding for stop gap and transitional teacher preperation. A second issue is working the internal politics. Adding CS does mean removing something else or more likely a piece of something else. The third one is what I'm noticing in NY where CS for all seems to at times forget about the CS. If we have knowledgeable teachers we can work around that one but I still think that might be my biggest concern.

Pull Requests and Other People's Code

One of the things I've heard for years from former students - both those looking for jobs and those looking to hire is that colleges don't really do a good job preparing students for careers in tech. Sure they teach the algorithms and the theory but ther are a lot of missing pieces, particularly on the practical end. I'm certainly not advocating turning CS programs into coding schools but there are many low cost opportunities to bring practical real world best practices in to the CS classroom. I most recently wrote about unit testing and had earlier about using GitHub as an educational tool. I've been happy with the way I introduce students to Git and how we use GitHub in my classes but I've never found a smooth way to introduce Pull Requests. A pull request is basically a mechanism by which one can suggest a change to a project even if you don't own it. The project owner can then decide to merge it in or not.

Being comfortable with the pull request work flow is an important part of contributing to open source projects. The basic process is that you make a copy of the project you want to work on by forking it, make your changes, then issue a pull request back to the project. For a beginner, there are a lot of moving parts. Instead, I teach my students branching and merging within a project. It's much easier and arguably more useful for day to day projects. I'd like my kid to learn the pull request mechanics but I haden't thought of a good way to do it.

I've also wanted to give kids more real world experiences in class and one experience they rarely get is working in other people's code bases. In school you largely write your own projects be they group or solo or work off a hopefully tried and true code base provided by the instructor. In the real world you're frequently working off of someone elses code and it's rarely in a polished state.

I finally found a way to kill both birds with one stone. A couple of weeks ago my class' lab was rather lengthy. It involved reading in a source file and reformating it in a sensible way. I knew most of the students wouldn't finish it in the allotted time and even if they did, this was an easy assignment to extend. On lab day I had students create a new repo for this lab (normally they just add a folder in a their "labs" repo) and get as much done as they could. The rule was simple - push what you've got up to GitHub at the end of class and then you can't push anything else. I also made it clear that I didn't expect a completed lab..

We continued the lab in the next class session. This time. I randomly assigned repos to students so that they would fork someone elses lab. They then had to complete the lab on the other students code base and then issue a pull request back to the original

This was the first time I've tried this so it was a little klunky. I'll do a much better job specifying the assignment and instructions next time around but even so I think the class went well. By the end of the class the students had sucesfully forked a project, issued a pull request, and merged one in to their own project. The only think I wasn't happy with was that many of the merges happened automatically. I have to figure out how to set things up so that there are merge conflicts since I want my students to experience that.

Overall, I was very happy with the way things worked out. The students were able to experience important real workd software engineering techniques without removing any of the academic CS in the class.

Do the students finish the tests or does the test finish the students

I tweeted this the other day:

What led to the tweet was a discussion I was having with some students about not having enough time on tests which led to a discussion of having to drop everything to spend every waking hour on a project.

Let's talk about tests.

I'm not saying that tests are the best forms of assessment - most of the time I'd much rather have students work on projects. There are, however, times when tests make sense or are otherwise appropriate.

In any event, writing a test is hard. Rather, writing good test is hard. It's certianly easy enough to put a bunch of multiple choice or short answer questions on paper and it's easy enough to give a hard equation to solve or some code to write but creating a good test is a task and half. You first have to figure out what you're trying to assess - memory, thought process, synthesizing concepts? Then you want to construct questions that give you insights into your students knowledge and thought process.

Some things that I consider when putting together a test:

  • Does it ramp up in difficulty - that is, are there some "gimme questions" and some challenges.
  • Are questions all or nothing - if a kid doesn't see things my way are they dead in the water.
  • Will the test repeatedly penalize or reward the same concept over and over again on the test.
  • Do I cover all the concepts I want to assess.
  • Do you make kids waste time with boilerplate code.
  • Do the questions take so long to read and digest that there's little time to form and write down answers.
  • Do the answers convey anything about the students thought process or just correctness.
  • Is it easy or impossible to grade and grade fairly.

What about length? To me a well crafted test should be completed by the average student with a few minutes to spare - enough time to check a couple of answers. This is not to say that they'll ace the exam, just finish it. Far too many teachers make tests an assessment of speed and accuracy at speed rather than understanding. That might actually be important in certain contexts - preparing for the APCS-A multiple choice section as an example but in general, it's not a good way of assessing what a student really knows.

It's also important that the the average student can achieve a score that you expect from an average student. That's probably in the 80s on a 0-100 scale or a B. Yes, I know, C is supposed to be average but with grade inflation being what it is…

You should NOT give an assessment where the average score is something like 17 out of 100 with the top student earning a 37. Sure, you can curve it but it also places a lot of stress on the students. You might do this from time to time - you might misjudge the difficulty of a test or your class but it shouldn't be a regular occurence. Teachers sometimes forget about the psychological affect that a unfair test can have on a student even if the teacher "fixes" it after the fact.

Don't be afraid to experiment or have some fun.

It's also ok to try different things. One year, having just completed a unit on Cellualar Automata I decided to give a quiz. I figured it would take the kids 10 to 15 minutes so I gave them 30. The quiz was something like the following:

You have 30 minutes to compose something on a sheet of paper that when I review it convinces me that you know something about the Cellular Automata Unit we just completed.

Some kids loved the quiz, some hated it. The ones that hated it had been trained for years as expert standardized test takers and this level of freedom really freaked the out.

Another time, I gave a multi page test of serious questions mixed with crazy shenanigans. Question one would be some CS problem followed by some instructions like "stand up, do 5 jumping jacks and sit down" or "shout out your favorite olde timey exclamation" or even "stand up, if or when you see another student standing, switch seats with the and continue the test." The test started with explicit instructions not to read ahead but to read and do each question in order. The last page was the answer key and I asked the kids to self-grade. Interestingly enough the grading was pretty honest. After that one, I received a few apology emails from kids who read to the end first encouraging me to give them failing grades for cheating. Wow, I wasn't expecting that. The test was something of an end of year goof. The CS questions were really easy - I wanted to reward them with something silly and easy - a guaranteed A after a year of hard work.

Tests to drive instruction and future practice

As a final point to ponder, tests shouldn't only be about grades. A well crafted test should drive instruction. Kids will get answers wrong - will your questions be crafted so that you can gain insights into why the got them wrong.

In an early class you might notice things like:

  • kids printing rather than returning answers
  • kids not understanding scope
  • kids having difficulty with idioms like i=i+1
  • kids needing more scaffolding to approach a problem

This can drive instruction moving forward.

Over time you'll also learn how to fine tune your tests and other assessments.

Next time, we'll talk about projects

Unless of course I get distracted by another blog topic or shiny object.

Using Emacs 48 Silversearcher

A couple of days ago I wrote about on my lab grading workflow. In the post I mentioned that I used Emacs to easily navigate between student folders and files so I can actually look at their work in addition to their programs output and test results.

The key is a combination of dired and ag, Emacs's interface to the Silver Searcher which is something like a recursive code grep on steroids. I also briefly try to show wgrep in the video which allows you to edit Emacs grep buffers, effectively allowing you to make changes across a set of files all at once. It ended up not working with silversearcher - if anyone out there knows why, please chime in.


No Magic Bullets - Discovery Learning

The most recent NYC CSTA chapter meeting was "How do I assess CS?" I wanted to go but it's been such a crazy month I was just too wiped out. Fortunately, the meetup was recorded. I was able to watch the first half this morning while working out on my stationary trainer which leads me to today's rare Saturday morning blog post. The meetup consisted of two panels. The first was made up of K12 teachers who taught CS. I can't talk about the second panel yet since I'm only halfway through but there were a couple of points made by my friend Katie Jergens who teaches at Dalton that I thought were worth talking about.

The first was when Katie noted that through working with the panel, one of her takeaways was that:

Giving students an explicit strategy for solving a problem - "this is how I would do it….," - giving them an explicit strategy first and then giving them a problem for which that strategy would apply is much more effective than having them discover it on their own.

This was refreshing to hear after being beaten over the head on discovery learning and constructivism for the past five or so years as being the magic bullet for teachers. I shared more thoughts on this a few weeks ago when I wrote about a SIGCSE paper presented by Bootstrap World that I very much liked.

Katie went on to talk about how the group found that while "discovery learning" can be effective it can also be frustrating and lose kids along the way. It also takes a lot of time and preparation, something that's short on supply in most public schools.

This made me think about the recent flurry of discussion around the debunking of learning styles which had previously been the magic bullet. When I started, the secret sauce was cooperative learning.

Of course any good teacher knows there's no magic bullet. You fill your tool belt and chest with as much as you can and use what's best based on your strengths as a teacher combined with what will work best with your students.

Another point that Katie made that I found refreshing had to do with something she does with her classes. A good portion of a student's grade is based on what she calls a "booster." Each student has to work one on one with her on some project. The student either scores a 0 or a 100 - the student keeps working with the direct support of the teacher until it's perfect.

The important thing that Katie said with respect to this is "I can do this because my largest class is sixteen students." No way could this ever scale to a public school where a teacher can meet with over 150 students a day and barely has time eat lunch let alone work one on one with a student in a suitably quiet place like an office. The refreshing thing to hear was the acknowledgment of the fact that what works in a rich private school won't work in a public school.

All to often education and yes, CS Ed is driven by people who really have no clue. They're anointed as thought leaders but they don't walk the walk. Some have some knowledge and experience but many don't. Until you've gotten a few years under your belt in a strap cashed public school that takes all comers, don't tell them how they should do it. Katie didn't - she acknowledged the problem - too bad so many others don't.

I'm looking forward to watching the rest of the video during a future workout and might have more to share then. For now, take a look for yourself.

Unit Tests Grading Workflow

I've talked before about unit testing (here, and here). My premise is that in addition to being an important industry technique, it's a sound practice for students studying CS. I also contend that it can make grading easier on the teacher. Maybe not as easy as an auto-grader but those have their own problems.

Since I spent most of today grading I thought I'd share my current workflow and how unit tests have made me more efficient.

I have each student make a single GitHub repo for all individual homeworks, labs and small projects. They'll make additional repos for larger and group projects. They fill out a Google form to give me the repo link. I download the form and end up with a CSV file something like this:

Doe, John,
Doe, Jane,

My goal is to clone each students repo into a directory and then throughout the term, they add assignments to their own repos using the names and specifications I give them. For example, after assigning three assignments, I could pull everything from their repos and I would have a directory structure something like this:

├── doe_jane
│   ├── hw_01
│   ├── hw_02
│   └── hw_03
└── doe_john
    ├── hw_01
    └── hw_02

To get there, I have to change the csv file to a small shell script:

git clone doe_john
git clone doe_jane

I usually do this in Emacs with a macro.

Now I'm ready to go.

Whenever there's a new assignment, I just have to update all the repos. I go into the root hw directory and loop through all the subdirectoryes:

cs /path/to/hw_root
for i in `ls`
  cd /path/to/hw_root/$i
  git pull

At this point I could go into each repo but we can do better. Since I have all of my students submit a Makefile with a default target to build an executable named main and also a target named tests which will build an executable to run the unit tests named tests I do this instead of a straight pull:

cs /path/to/hw_root
for i in `ls`
  cd /path/to/hw_root/$i
  git pull
  cd hw_03 # or whatever assignment I'm grading
  make tests

Now, if I want, I can go into each directory, run the tests by typing ./tests and the hw or project with ./main. I can also add a couple of lines to the for loop above like:

echo "$i Test Report\n----------------\n" >> /path/to/hw_root/test_report
./tests >> /path/to/hw_root/test_rport
echo "----------------------\n\n"

This gives me a single file with everyone's test results. Either by doing this or by running the tests in each folder manually I can quickly see what works and what doesn't.

While I'm doing this, I have Emacs up and with dired mode and more specifically ag-dired-regexp which lets me easily navigate to any student's files. Combined with the test results I can quickly evaluate the entire assignment.

Put all of this together and it makes grading somewhat bearable. I can work through well written, correct assignments extremely quickly and drill down into the other projects efficiently as well.


Everybody know's I'm the Statler and Waldorf of the CS Education world.


I've been known to be "prickly," which is a nice way of putting it and I'm openly critical of many programs out there.

One program, however, that I very much like is TEALS. They've been around since 2009 founded by Kevin Wang, a former teacher. The basic idea was to have tech professionals go to a school on the way to work and team teach a CS class with one of the school's teachers. The tech person would provide the CS expertise and the teacher would provide the education chops. They'd both learn from each other and the students from both of them. I didn't know what to make out of it when I first heard about them and in general, I am pretty skeptical about drop in programs.

After a couple of years, I started hearing from my former students. As it turns out, a number of them had independently discovered TEALS and become volunteers. They all talked about how rewarding the experience was and how much the kids were getting that they wouldn't have gotten otherwise.

I was sold.

TEALS has expanded considerably in the decade since they started. Now they support multiple classes at multiple levels, have different models from the original team teaching to a model where the volunteer is more of a general tech / programming resource and the teacher is more self sufficient.

Most importantly, they provide quality training and materials to both the teachers and the tech volunteers.

No drop in program can ever replace well prepared knowledgeable teachers but in K12 CS very few of those teachers exist and it will take us years to produce them.

Until then, TEALS is one of the best programs to get CS education to our kids and even when we do get there, their ability to connect schools with volunteers and resources can't be understated.

If you're a tech professional and want to do some real good, volunteer with TEALS - here's a link to more information:

Math For Math Teachers - watering down CS Ed before we even start

Last Thursday I attended an event - the release of "Priming the Computer Science Teacher Pump: Integrating CS Education into Schools of Ed." Mark Guzdial wrote about it here. You can also download the actual report here.

I agree with a number of the challenges in creating CS teacher preparation programs that were outlined in the report and I also agree with the idea that a strong CS teacher preparation program should prepare teachers to teach any (and in the case of the programs I designed, create new) curriculum but I wanted to focus on one specific item that was brought up last Thursday. The item deals with how much CS content a K12 CS teacher actually needs.

The speaker at the event - I forget which one pointed out that a K12 CS teacher doesn't need the same content knowledge as a full CS major let alone graduate student. This is something I wholeheartedly agree with. The speakers throughout the event also emphasized that CS teachers need enough content knowledge to be "generalists" and teach any reasonable CS experience. Again, a point on which I agree.

The point that concerned me - not in terms of the presenters intent but rather in how I feel things will play out was when the presenter said something to the affect (and I'm paraphrasing here):

Math teachers don't need the same level of math content knowledge as math majors. That's why we have "math for math teachers."

I was immediately reminded of a conversation I had once with a colleague. He was looking over a student's college transcript and noticed a course "Math for Math Teachers" and thought, "I always thought that it was just math!!!!!"

To many teachers, titles like "Calculus for Math Teachers" like those similar courses "Calculus for Poets" or, the famous "Math for Trees" are code for watered down math for non-math majors courses. From what I can gather many of these courses are more Math Ed courses than Math but offered through a school's Mathematics Department rather than through an Ed school or department. They make sure that candidates fill the "enough graduate math credits" bucket. Everyone goes along with a nod and a wink and life moves on. I want to emphasize that there's nothing inherently bad with many of these courses - many are quite good but they're content heavy education courses masquerading as pure content courses.

I managed to avoid doing any of that in my programs current design but I did have to add a graduate algorithms class that I'm not entirely happy with - I feel that it's requiring a level of depth that K12 CS teachers will never need.

Across all subject areas we should just acknowledge that K12 teachers don't need a huge amount of graduate subject area credits. In my view, teachers need depth a bit beyond the most advanced core course their students will take and a good deal of breadth. Wouldn't it be nice if we didn't have to play this song and dance this dance of creating "special" subject courses for teachers.

The real thing to watch out for is how this is already playing out in computer science. Colleges are starting to offer classes for K12 computer science teachers. I've seen a few course descriptions and syllabi and spoken to a number of people involved with some of these classes. It's typical to see something like "Java Programming for CS Teachers" as opposed to a "first in CS sequence programming course using Java." Look under the hood and you'll find it's really "APCS-A for teachers" - not creating a generalist teacher but rather taking us right back to preparing them to ape specific curricula and sequences.

We can do better.

Why Strong K12 Teacher Certification is Important

About a week ago New York State's new regulation creating a K12 CS teacher certification went live. Just the other day I was honored to be interviewed by Matt Flamm of Crain's New York in a follow up piece about it.

Having K12 CS teacher certification is big and having quality programs that lead to certification is HUGE. In my view, it's a game changer.

Let's Focus on high school, my wheelhouse.

From a course offerings point of view it's the wild west. I don't mean this as a bad thing, it's just that there's a huge range of offerings from AP to home brew, physical computing, game based, cyber security, you name it, there's a curriculum. The long and short of this is that schools need teachers to teach all of these experiences. Without a strong certification pathway we're going to be stuck with the current training based model where teachers are trained to deliver canned curricula rather than truly teach. With strong teacher preparation programs teachers will be prepared not only to deliver all the existing curricula but, arguable more importantly design their own learning experiences appropriate for the populations they work with.

This is important and alone would make having CS certification worthwhile but to me the BIG win is that it creates a viable career path.

People say we'll never find enough CS teachers because the tech industry pays so well. I've never believed that. We find math teachers even though many could flee to finance and chem teachers in spite of big pharma's call so why can't we find CS teachers? Because we've never provided a path into the profession and a viable career track.

Certification means that over time schools will be able to build CS teachers and the discipline will be treated as the other subjects. Prior to certification, a CS teacher might be cut if a school's math department downsized. With certification, the career track for a CS teacher is the same as the track for any other teacher.

It also means that young people starting out who are interested in both teaching and computer science will have a way of getting into the profession - something that has never before existed.

Having CS certification alone won't woo a plethora of current tech professionals into teaching but over time, we'll start to have CS Ed majors or CS majors pursuing CS ED Masters degrees and entering the profession. This won't happen in a press or election cycle but it will happen.

This all hinges on quality prep programs. I think I've hit the sweet spot with what I've designed at Hunter. The critical components are of course content and pedagogy. Teacher candidates must have both sufficient depth and breadth in the subject and all the pedagogical content knowledge that comes along with it. I don't agree with the common approach of taking a course to teach a course - that is, having courses like "APCS - Principles for teachers" or "APCS - A for teachers." I want my teachers to be able to teach any reasonable curriculum or design their own so we'll be rolling out courses that examine the commonly offerd curricula but prepare teachers for a whole lot more.

It's been an exciting week in NY CS Ed and there's a lot more to come.

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