Globals Breaks And Returns, oh my

  • Never use global variables
  • Never break out of a loop

These are two "best practices" that are frequently touted in early CS classes both at the high school and college level.

They came up a couple of times yesterday. Once in the Facebook APCS-A teachers group and once on Alfred Thompson's blog.

Alfred post was topically on global variables. Actually it was deeper than just global variables. It's also about how students progress - what they can figure out at various stages of progress and how what seems like a good idea early on the path to computer science doesn't seem so great later on.

The discussion on the APCS-A group started with a discussion of this code and its break statement as opposed to having the loop's exit condition in the boolean up top:

  while (true)
          // do stuff
          if (condition) break;

These two "best practices" - not using globals and not breaking out of loops are frequently taught to students at a point when reasons for the best practice aren't always clear.

Actually, these aren't even universally best practices.

Looking at the while loop, You might have event driven code with a while loop acting as a dispatcher:

  while (true){
      // do stuff

      if (some event)
          do that event;

      if (some other event)
          do that event;

      // etc

      if (exit event)

Nothing wrong with that structure. It's clean, easy to read and easy to reason about.

I've seen loops that use extra variables and crazy boolean expressions so as to avoid using a break statement so that they follow the "best practice" but end up with much messier code.

This is not to say that you should always use break or continue for that matter but rather that the best practice should be to consider if it makes the code cleaner, easier to read, and more maintainable or not.

On the global front things are also not so clear. Sure, storing information in globals and then using them indiscriminantly in assorted methods or functions is both bad form and dangerous but there are times when using globals make sense.

Back in "the day" I was a C programmer. I used single C source files along with their matching .h include files to enable *object typed* programming. Each file was a singleton object. Functions in the file were methods using some naming convention to demarcate public vs private, and variables that were global to the file as class variables (or instance variables but there was only ever one instance of any given class). Technically I broke the rules but the technique was very effective and allowed me to write large maintainable systems.

More recently I've been playing with Vue.js for front end development. Vue uses a central data store - Vuex to maintain state. Basically a place for global variables to manage the state of your application. Again, technically global but with rules and protocols to make things work without the usual danger associated with globals.

A great comment on the Facebook thread 1 included this Hal Ableson quote:

"Programs must be written for people to read, and only incidentally for machines to execute."

and noted that this is particularly true on the AP Exam and after all, the original question was posed on a forum about APCS-A. With this in mind, you shouldn't try to use globals or cleverly or creatively use break or continue but they do have their places.

I've used globals in both professional and personal work when appropriate and I don't shy away from break and continue and use them regularly. The real best practice is that you consider why you are or aren't using these constructs and make a choice that makes sense for you, your group, or your team.


  1. While I will identify sources when they publish content publicly on ablog or Twitter, since the Facebook group is semi-private, I don't feel it's appropriate to state the names of commenters without asking] [return]